Clinical Trials in the EU/EEA – Focus on CMC Aspects

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Date in a Business Letter

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Description. The Microsoft Excel FORMAT function takes a date expression and returns it as a formatted string. The FORMAT function is a built-in function in Excel that is categorized as a Date/Time can be used as a VBA function (VBA) in Excel.

Brussels, 24 March Commission concludes on Microsoft investigation, imposes conduct remedies and a fine The European Commission has concluded, after a five-year investigation, that Microsoft Corporation broke European Union competition law by leveraging its near monopoly in the market for PC operating systems OS onto the markets for work group server operating systems 1 and for media players 2. Because the illegal behaviour is still ongoing, the Commission has ordered Microsoft to disclose to competitors, within days, the interfaces 3 required for their products to be able to ‘talk’ with the ubiquitous Windows OS.

Microsoft is also required, within 90 days, to offer a version of its Windows OS without Windows Media Player to PC manufacturers or when selling directly to end users. After an exhaustive and extensive investigation of more than five years and three statements of objections 4 , the Commission has today taken a decision finding that US software company Microsoft Corporation has violated the EU Treaty’s competition rules by abusing its near monopoly 5 Article 82 in the PC operating system.

Microsoft abused its market power by deliberately restricting interoperability between Windows PCs and non-Microsoft work group servers, and by tying its Windows Media Player WMP , a product where it faced competition, with its ubiquitous Windows operating system. This illegal conduct has enabled Microsoft to acquire a dominant position in the market for work group server operating systems, which are at the heart of corporate IT networks, and risks eliminating competition altogether in that market.

In addition, Microsoft’s conduct has significantly weakened competition on the media player market. The ongoing abuses act as a brake on innovation and harm the competitive process and consumers, who ultimately end up with less choice and facing higher prices. Remedies In order to restore the conditions of fair competition, the Commission has imposed the following remedies: As regards interoperability, Microsoft is required, within days, to disclose complete and accurate interface documentation which would allow non-Microsoft work group servers to achieve full interoperability with Windows PCs and servers.

This will enable rival vendors to develop products that can compete on a level playing field in the work group server operating system market. The disclosed information will have to be updated each time Microsoft brings to the market new versions of its relevant products.

Date and time representation by country

Easily convert dates to Australian format in Excel Jul 14, This is one of the most frequently asked questions that come up when I’m teaching Microsoft Excel courses. Many people export their data from an accounting system or a database that originated in the US or Canada where dates are usually in the format of Month-Day-Year. Here in Australia, and much of the world use the format of Day-Month-Year.

No matter which version of the software you are using, you will want to use the ‘Text to Columns Wizard’ in Microsoft Excel.

What date format should be used when one signs a formal document? There are several different date formats such as 5/24/, or May 24, Which one is recommended when one signs a formal document such as Bill of Sale etc?

As users move through a checkout form, they generally type most information from memory — their street address, phone number, etc. The credit card fields, however, are different, as users break their attention from the interface to physically remove their wallet, withdraw their card, and then input the card number, expiration date, and security code seen on the physical card into the appropriate fields in the checkout flow.

Hence, within the payment fields, users are switching their attention from the physical credit card to the checkout interface. This has consequences for how users input their information. For example, when the month field was implemented as a drop-down with only the name of the month displayed, some users during testing were observed to actually count on their fingers as they translated from the numeric representation of the month on their card to what they saw on the interface.

This interrupts the smoothness of the form-filling process and adds to the time it takes to complete the checkout. This can lead to abandonments, depending on the error-recovery experience. For example, are all the payment inputs cleared after the expiration date error? Are users scrolled to the field where the error occurred? Are they provided with clear, highly specific error messages?

During our testing we observed any one of these issues much less all of them in combination can be a direct cause of users abandoning a purchase.

American vs British style of writing dates

Dates may be written partly in Roman numerals i. Time[ edit ] The hour clock enjoys broad everyday usage in most non-English speaking countries, at least when time is written or displayed. In some regions, for example where German, French and Romanian are spoken, the hour clock is used today even when speaking casually[ citation needed ], while in other countries the hour clock is used more often in spoken form. In most English-speaking regions, particularly the United States and the Commonwealth , the hour clock is the predominant form of stating the time, with the hour clock used in contexts where unambiguity and accurate timekeeping are important, such as for public transport schedules.

Nonetheless, usage is inconsistent: The BBC website uses the hour clock for its TV and radio programme listings, while BBC promotions for upcoming programmes give their times according to the hour clock.

Calendars: Why does the US military use a date format that is other than the standard date format for the US? Update Cancel. The standard format example (25 Dec 16) means who ever is writing it can be read by everyone. Should the US adopt the European standard for formatting dates?

New ways of doing things are always “wrong” in that sense. If they weren’t, they wouldn’t be new. But it shouldn’t be wrong, and I personally use the ISO format in all my own correspondence. Word versions of months are not ambiguous, although some abbreviations can be. I have seen ‘Ju’ used, in a misguided attempt at brevity. And there is the issue of foreign languages. Do you know, off the top of your head, what month ‘Srpen’ is? I do, because it is in a language I speak fluently, but most people worldwide would have to look it up.

The ISO format is completely clear, no matter what your language skills are. And I have to disagree on the matter of inherently error-prone. Look up earlier in this very thread, what started this whole discussion. The question was posed, “If date of birth is written like 5. As for your Cabo example, I think you might admit, that was stretching it just a little.

A text message to your pal is likely to be full of odd things, with meanings not rigidly defined by a standards committee.

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For the y and yy formats, years below are handled in a special way when the y or yy symbol is used. If the year falls in the range 0 inclusive to 69 inclusive , is added. If the year falls in the range 70 inclusive to 99 inclusive then is added. This means that ” ” is interpreted as ” “. The “Day, month and two digit year, with dots or tabs” format dd [.

The"Year and just the year ” format only works if a time string has already been found — otherwise this format is recognised as HH MM. It is possible to over- and underflow the dd and DD format.

Date and time format – ISO 8601

Most Americans will be used to the date format that puts the month before the day. In the European date format however the month and day are the other way around, e. This then causes difficulty for those arranging to meet on that day, as an American visiting from overseas might write it in their diary under the 12th March and thus be very early for their appointment. Meanwhile this can cause certain software to crash if it is reliant on reading the date to perform.

ISO describes an internationally accepted way to represent dates and times using numbers. When dates are represented with numbers they can be interpreted in different ways. For example, 01/05/12 could mean January 5, , or May 1,

The stigma is beginning to dissipate as an increasing amount of Americans believe that online dating is now socially acceptable. During an April survey, 84 percent of dating app users stated that they were using online dating services to look for a romantic relationship. A further 43 percent used online dating for friendly contact and only 24 percent of respondents stated that that they used online dating apps and services explicitly for sexual encounters.

The same survey also found that there were more male internet users who were currently using dating sites or apps than female users. Dating sites and apps were most popular among younger internet users – 30 percent of U. Current online dating site users explained their reasons for using online dating sites or apps with answers that included finding someone for a long term relationship or even marriage and the chance to meet people who just want to have fun.

According to another recent survey of dating site users, 66 percent of U. Other common reasons for using online dating sites or apps were the pre-screening of dates as well as easier conversation.

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I have accumulated letters of reference for an English ancestor from the early 20th century, written by a variety of employers, between and , and all used what is now considered the American form. I’ve encountered the same style on British tombstones prior to the s. There are some that use the form 8 July , for example, but plenty of the July 8, variety, too.

Exactly when the British declared it a hard rule to start with the day of the month is something I haven’t determined, but to credit blame? Americans for the other form is oversimplifying things. The point is that the date format Americans use is an older form that used to be common in Britain too.

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Pete Would you please explain how this works? If so it assumes a 2 digit year, if not it assumes a 4 digit year. Im my case I run a macro that opens the CSV file. One column of the file contains dates. After adding an extra column with some computed data, the macro saves it as a. In the XLS file, a date that is valid in both formats will change, i.

Note that my macro does not touch the date column in any way, and the CSV always has the correct format. This only seems to happen on the customer’s PC which runs Office I have not seen it in Office or The only way I’ve been able to get around it is to change the macro to import the CSV, instead of opening it, and specifying Text format for the date column.

I did consider another possibility, which is to have the macro shell something like a grep command to put a"space” in front of the dates. That stops Excel from interpreting it as a date quotes around the dates do not help.

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Sep 09,  · Re: format dd/mm/yyyy date as text in VBA without US conversion Thanks Norrie! Basically my work has a mail merge set up so I need the date .

Approval of clinical trials is under the responsibility of individual MS and involves a thorough evaluation of the products used in the clinical study. Detailed description of the content and format of the CTA are provided in the CT-1 guidance updated in March [2]. This guidance addresses the requirements for an initial submission, the notification of a substantial amendment and the declaration of the end of the trial.

More particularly, it includes basic information on the format and content of an Investigational Medicinal Product Dossier IMPD , and on the format and supporting documents required to implement changes to quality section of the IMPD. The IMPD provides quality and non-clinical data on the IMP, in addition to data from previous clinical trials and human experience to evaluate the benefits and risks associated with the administration of an IMP during the conduct of the clinical trial.

The Quality section of the IMPD, describing all aspects of the Chemistry, Manufacturing and Control CMC of the product under investigation, plays an important role in ensuring safety and establishing the scientific relevance of the IMP along with already completed non-clinical and clinical studies. The nature of the information and the level of detail to be provided in an IMPD will vary depending on the product type New Chemical Entity, Biologics, Cell and Gene Therapy Products and the stage of clinical development.

This article discusses the evolution of the EU regulatory expectations related to the IMPs and how these expectations have influenced the required quality information to include in the IMPD for biological products. First, an overview of regulations, guidelines and events, impacting quality requirements of IMPs, will be presented together with a brief summary of the two procedures currently available for submission of CTAs in the EU.

We will then focus on some of the CMC topics requiring special attention when preparing a dossier for a biological product based on our experience with recent submissions. Historical Background and Evolution of the EU Clinical Trial Legal Framework Below is a chronological presentation of each regulation and guidance document, including the impact they had on the presentation of quality information within the IMPD.

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South America Europe Things get interesting when you’re in Spanish-speaking countries. Look to see if most of the people living or working around you drop the zero when the day or month is a single digit. That seems to be the norm.

The European Data Protection Regulation is applicable as of May 25th, in all member states to harmonize data privacy laws across Europe. If you find the .

Frequently one finds that sellers guess-timate the age of a piece to show the item in its most favorable light. Weekend collectors–in a post-brunch glow and accompanied by a charming companion–are all too ready to hear the best of an object that has attracted their attention. As we say on the Street: That’s what makes a trade. But my column is about investment in tangibles–not about entertainment. If you are investing in an object for resale, it is useful to have something more concrete than a distant memory of a hopeful conjecture an enthusiastic dealer made in passing.

In , the US Patent Office opened for business. Makers of things great and small have seen fit over the years to obtain patents for their items or processes.

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