History in Focus

Advice on equipping a kitchen in the 19th century Catherine Beecher had firm ideas about what was needed for a well-run household. Her list for the s kitchen in the USA included: In a prosperous American household in a “prudent and generous mistress” would supply her cook “with ample provision of all such things as her important department requires All these articles are indispensable, and there are a great many other useful implements which modern ingenuity has brought into use, and which it would be well to introduce into a fully-arranged kitchen. Mary Ann Bryan Mason A book aimed at an English couple setting up home in a small cottage in the first half of the 19th century advised: A good copper tea-kettle is the most durable this is an article I don’t know how to persuade you to do without, though some writers cry out bitterly against it. The round shape will be two or three shillings cheaper than the oval, and bears mending better. It is not quite so fashionable, but that you have too much good sense to mind. The beauty of a copper kettle is in its durability and brightness, not its shape; and the two or three shillings saved will buy you a handy little saucepan, or gridiron, or frying-pan:

Victoria (Australia)

History of Christmas Christmas as we celebrate it today has its origins in Victorian Britain. It’s hard to imagine now, but at the beginning of the 19th century Christmas was hardly celebrated. Many businesses did not even consider it a holiday. However by the end of the century it had become the biggest annual celebration and took on the form that we recognise today. The transformation happened quickly, and came from all sectors of society.

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Courting the Victorian Woman Victorian dating etiquette, related stories Bread should be cut in thin slices, and laid on a napkin on the left of each plate. Victorian Etiquettes and Manners for Men and Women This name is what we consider to be referred to as the first name. Never uses slang or bad language. Victorian dating etiquette Victorian middle finger was basically a pretty parasol. In search of ways to occupy his evenings when his pocket money was limited, he often fell in with other fellows like himself.

There was no physical contact between the woman and the gentleman until marriage. Make the application with a soft flannel rag. Remembers; to discuss the price of anything is never in good taste. It is a mark of vanity for a lady to exhibit any anxiety to sing or play. You are twenty-six years of age, I am forty-five.

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However, the period known as the Victorian era in England, from to , witnessed such polarized gender roles that it can also be analyzed according to the different functions assigned to men and women, more commonly known as the ideology of separate spheres. Women inhabited a separate, private sphere, one suitable for the so called inherent qualities of femininity: Following such principles allowed men, allegedly controlled by their mind or intellectual strength, to dominate society, to be the governing sex, given that they were viewed as rational, brave, and independent.

Women, on the other hand, were dominated by their sexuality, and were expected to fall silently into the social mold crafted by men, since they were regarded as irrational, sensitive, and dutiful. As Susan Kent observes: The majority of women did not have the option not to marry:

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He became an MP in and became Home Secretary in ; he dominated parliament throughout the period Peel was responsible for the establishment of the Metropolitan Police Force in and was Prime Minister for a short time in

Find GIFs with the latest and newest hashtags! Search, discover and share your favorite Victorian Era GIFs. The best GIFs are on GIPHY.

The Victorian Era The Industrial Revolution The era known as the Industrial Revolution was a period of fundamental changes in agriculture, manufacturing, transportation, and social structure. An economy based on manual labor and skilled artisans was replaced by one dominated by industry, machinery, and mass production. Energy was a major impetus for this conversion from an agricultural society to an industrial one.

Animal and human power were the primary sources of energy until James Watt perfected the steam engine in What started it all: Conditions that promoted the Industrial Revolution were advances in agricultural techniques and practices resulting in an increased supply of food and raw materials. The building of roads, canals, and eventually railways enabled expanded trade.

Many of these conditions were so closely interrelated that increased activity in one spurred an increase in activity in another. Although the Industrial Revolution first occurred in England, it was a radical time of social and economic change in America and most of Europe as well. I found this video recently on Youtube — but there are no credits and it has a smarmy musical background. Prior to industrialization, the world was a very different place: Queen Victoria The momentum of the industrial revolution had already begun, but it was during the Victorian era that the full effects of industrialization made itself felt.

Victorian government buys Port Melbourne factory for $130 million

Australian Bureau of Statistics. GSP as of June Employment as of Aug The state of Victoria is the second largest economy in Australia after New South Wales, accounting for a quarter of the nation’s gross domestic product. The economy grew by 1. Finance and insurance is Victoria’s largest income producing sector, while the health care and social assistance sector is the state’s biggest employer.

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Victorian Technology

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Mar 12,  · When opened, it revealed an incredible seven tons of photographic prints, flash powder bottles, cigarette packets and beer bottles dating back to Victorian times.

Native American languages gave us scores of words for things we frequently use—not to mention the many states , rivers, and towns that evolved from Native American names. Skunk, coyote, raccoon, moose, woodchuck, and caribou are a few of the other animals that owe their names to Native American tribes. Squash When English settlers first arrived in North America, they used squash as a verb meaning to crush something and, more arcanely, to refer to an unripe pea pod.

However, they were unfamiliar with the fruit we now know as squash, according to Merriam-Webster. Chocolate This delicious treat comes to us from nature, but we can thank Indigenous Mesoamericans for this Native American name. The word chocolate comes from Nahuatl, a language spoken by the Aztecs many Indigenous people in Mexico speak dialects of Nahuatl today.

The Aztecs would make a drink from ground cacao seeds called chikolatl. According to Nahuatl scholar Magnus Pharao Hansen, the Nahuatl name for the fruit, ahuacatl , was also slang for testicle, but only ever slang. The word ahuacatl chiefly described the fruit. It entered Spanish in the late s as aguacate, and was eventually Anglicized as avocado. Guacamole In a similar vein, guacamole stems from two Nahuatl words: Mix them together and they make ahuacamolli.

Molli, as fans of chicken mole enchiladas will know, was later spelled mole in Mexican Spanish.

Victorian Christmas – History of Christmas

Teachers rally at Hisense Arena in June The move towards widespread industrial action could result in schools closing as teachers take part in planned workplace stoppages. Labor is also desperate to avoid another bitter industrial dispute after its ongoing drama with the firefighters’ union. AEU Victorian branch president Meredith Peace said teachers were overworked and needed to be given more time to plan their classes and assess students.

May 05,  · Victorian/edwardian is out of my comfort zone. However, I picked up these items and would love any input. Also, I have a trip this Saturday to go through an attic in which the woman tells me is stuffed with s through s.

North America[ edit ] The Painted Ladies are an example of Victorian architecture found in San Francisco, California In the United States, ‘Victorian’ architecture generally describes styles that were most popular between and A list of these styles most commonly includes Second Empire —85 , Stick-Eastlake —ca. As in the United Kingdom, examples of Gothic Revival and Italianate continued to be constructed during this period, and are therefore sometimes called Victorian.

Some historians classify the later years of Gothic Revival as a distinctive Victorian style named High Victorian Gothic. Stick-Eastlake , a manner of geometric, machine-cut decorating derived from Stick and Queen Anne, is sometimes considered a distinct style. On the other hand, terms such as ” Painted Ladies ” or “gingerbread” may be used to describe certain Victorian buildings, but do not constitute a specific style.

The names of architectural styles as well as their adaptations varied between countries. Many homes combined the elements of several different styles and are not easily distinguishable as one particular style or another. The extent to which any one is the “largest surviving example” is debated, with numerous qualifications. The Distillery District in Toronto, Ontario contains the largest and best preserved collection of Victorian-era industrial architecture in North America.

The Fan district is best known locally as Richmond’s largest and most ‘European’ of Richmond’s neighborhoods and nationally as the largest contiguous Victorian neighborhood in the United States. Over-The-Rhine in Cincinnati, Ohio has the largest collection of early Victorian Italianate architecture in the United States, [10] [11] [12] and is an example of an intact 19th-century urban neighborhood.

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First telegraph cable laid across the Atlantic. Matrimonial Causes Act permits divorce for adultery but women could not petition until Suppression of Indian mutiny against British rule in India. Big Ben bell cast April John Speke discovers Lake Victoria.

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The Palace of Westminster , completed in Designed by Sir Charles Barry and A. Pugin The 19th century saw a fragmentation of English architecture, as Classical forms continued in widespread use but were challenged by a series of distinctively English revivals of other styles, drawing chiefly on Gothic, Renaissance and vernacular traditions but incorporating other elements as well. This ongoing historicism was counterposed by a resumption of technical innovation, which had been largely in abeyance since the Renaissance but was now fuelled by new materials and techniques derived from the Industrial Revolution , particularly the use of iron and steel frames , and by the demand for new types of building.

The rapid growth and urbanisation of the population entailed an immense amount of new domestic and commercial construction, while the same processes combined with a religious revival to bring about a resumption of widespread church building. Mechanised manufacturing, railways and public utilities required new forms of building, while the new industrial cities invested heavily in grand civic buildings and the huge expansion and diversification of educational, cultural and leisure activities likewise created new demands on architecture.

The Gothic revival was a development which emerged in England and whose influence, except in church building, was largely restricted to the English-speaking world.

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